On this day…

On the 12th of July, 1543, King Henry VIII married his sixth and final wife, Catherine Parr, at Hampton Court Palace.

This painting of Parr was mistakenly identified as Jane Grey for generations.

410px-Queen_Catherine_ParrCatherine Parr in the Melton Constable Portrait. Formerly mistaken as Jane Grey. 16th Century.

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On this day: the first assassination by a firearm

James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray. 1561.

A detail of a 1561 painting of the Regent.

The first recorded assassination by firearm happened in Scotland on the 23rd of January, 1570. James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray and Regent of Scotland was killed at Linlithgow Palace.

Miles Birket Foster painting Linlithgow Palace Victorian era

Miles Birket Foster’s 19th century painting of Linlithgow Palace

The assassin was James Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, a supporter of Mary, Queen of Scots.

James Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh and Woodhouselee (died 1581) was a Scottish supporter of Mary, Queen of Scots, who assassinated James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray, Regent of Scotland, in January 1570.

A nineteenth century depiction of the killing.

Some accounts of the execution were recorded centuries after it happened, making some facts a little bit unclear.

One version states that Lady Mondegreen was killed by a second shot, but this is a myth.

On this day: Arthur, Prince of Wales met Catherine of Aragon

Arthur Prince of Wales c 1500 Portrait of a princess(Infanta Catherine of Aragon or Mary Rose Tudor) circa 1502

The prince circa 1500, and a portrait thought to be Catherine, circa 1502.

On the 4th of November, 1501, Arthur, Henry the Eighth’s older brother, met his future wife. Catherine of Aragon had been communicating with Arthur via letters written in Latin, and yet when they met they discovered they spoke the language differently and couldn’t understand each other.

Both were fifteen at the time of their meeting. They married ten days later.

The prince would die in April the following year, leaving Henry to go on to become king, as well as to marry his wife.

On this day: the Battle of Lepanto

The Battle of Lepanto 7 October 1571 when a fleet of the Holy League, a coalition of European Catholic maritime states, decisively defeated the fleet of the Ottoman Empire on the northern edge of the Gulf of Corinth.

On the 7th of October, 1571, the Holy League destroyed Ottoman Empire forces in the Battle of Lepanto.
The coalition, made up of European Catholic maritime forces and organised by Pope Pius V, met the Turkish forces sailing west at the Gulf of Corinth, Greece.

The battle concluded at about 4pm.

The Holy League lost around 7500 soldiers, sailors and rowers, but they freed about as many Christian prisoners. The Ottomans lost around 15000, and at least 3500 were taken prisoner.

On this day: the Siege of Vienna

The Ottoman Turks began their Siege of Vienna on the 27th of September 1529. Suleiman the Magnificent led the Ottoman Empire’s first attempt to take Vienna.

The siege ran until the 15th of October, when the Christian Coalition defeated the Ottomans.

Austrian troops clash with Turks outside Vienna.

Engraving of clashes between the Austrians and Ottomans outside Vienna, 1529.

On this day: Mary, Queen of Scots married.

Mary, Queen of Scots married her second husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley at Holyrood Abbey on the 29th of July 1565. The marriage was not a happy one, and Darnley was murdered in February 1567. He was twenty-one when he died.

Mary, Queen of Scots, and her second husband Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, parents of King James VI of Scotland, later King James I of England.