On this day: the Turks depart Crete

Turkish_departure_Chania_1898 Departure of the Turks from Chania, Crete (3rd November 1898)

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Ottoman Turks are seen departing Chania (Hania) on the Greek island of Crete on the 3rd of November, 1898.

During Ottoman occupation, Chania’s churches were turned into mosques. However, a population exchange between Greece and Turkey in the 1920s at the Ottoman Empire’s dissolution ended Islamic influence in the region.

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On this day: Finland’s first daguerreotype image

The first daguerreotype photograph taken in Finland was a daguerreotype taken by Henrik Cajander on 3rd November 1842 of Nobel House at Uudenmaankatu 8. The house, with Turku Cathedral i

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The first daguerreotype photograph in Finland was taken in Turku on the 3rd of November, 1842. Photographer Henrik Cajander created this image of Nobel House. Turku Cathedral stands in the background.

The house was demolished in the 1960s.

Downhill Demesne

Yesterday we visited Downhill (or what’s left of it!), which is in County Londonderry in Northern Ireland.

Built by the bizarre English aristocrat Frederick, 4th Earl of Bristol and Lord Bishop of Derry – yes, he was both – the house is now a ruin, but the Mussenden Temple perched on the cliff at the edge of the estate survives. It is said he kept his mistress there.

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On this day: the death of a Russian imperialist

Муравьёв-Виленский_литографияCount Mikhail Nikolayevich Muravyov 12 October 1796 in Moscow – 12 September 1866 in Saint Petersburg) imperial statesman forced

In 1865

Count Mikhail Nikolayevich Muravyov, a Russian imperial statesman infamous for his policies of forced Russification across the empire, died on the 12h of September, 1866.

Born in Moscow in 1796, Muravyov worked hard in what is now Poland, Lithuania, and Belarus to suppress nationalism by targeting religion and language. Catholic churches were torn down, and schools teaching in Polish and Lithuanian languages were closed. Russian teachers were brought in from elsewhere to take over the education system.

St_Joseph_Church_demolitionSt. Joseph the Betrothed Church in Vilnius being demolished by the tsarist authorities in 1877 to enforce Russification policies. Lithuania Russia cultural gen

A Catholic church in Vilnius being torn down in 1877.

Additionally, the Roman alphabet was banned, and replaced with Cyrillic.

Similar policies were put in place by Russian officials in other regions – particularly Ukraine – and continued to be used by the Soviets.

Muravyov was recorded as saying: ‘What the Russian rifle did not succeed in doing, will be finished off by Russian schools.’