On this day: the Pullman Strike

A nationwide railway strike in the United States, which came to be known as the Pullman Strike, occurred on the 11th of May, 1894.

Considered a revolutionary moment for labour laws in America, nearly 4000 workers for the Pullman Company refused to work after a reduction in their wages.

The image below shows workers protesting outside the Arcade Building in Pullman, Chicago.

Pullman_strikers_outside_Arcade_Building Chicago The Pullman Strike was a nationwide railroad strike in the United States on May 11, 1894.

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On this day: the founding of Essex County Cricket Club

Essex County Cricket Club was founded at a meeting in Chelmsford‘s Shire Hall on the 14th of January, 1876.

essex1897_redlillywhite1898little-was-heard-of-essex-cricket-from-1794-until-the-formation-of-essex-ccc-on-14-january-1876-at-a-meeting-in-the-shire-hall-chelmsford

The Essex team in 1897. X

The sport of cricket had been in the area since some time in the 16th century, but no major teams were organised until the late Victorian era. Essex CCC became First-Class in 1894.

Most of the team’s home games are played in Chelmsford, the county town of Essex.

On this day: the Port Arthur Massacre

On the 21st of November, 1894 Japanese soldiers massacred at least a thousand Chinese servicemen and civilians in Port Arthur (now Lüshunkou), China.

Port_Arthur_MassacreA Western newspaper's depiction of Japanese soldiers mutilating bodies. 21st November 1894

A Western media illustration of Japanese soldiers mutilating the bodies. X

The Japanese left only thirty-six people alive to bury the bodies. However, the number of people killed is highly disputed, with estimates ranging from a thousand to twenty-thousand.

The massacre was part of the First Sino-Japanese War, which was largely fought over the control of Korea.

On this day: the world’s first motor racing contest

#65 Albert Lemaître in Peugeot 3hp at 1894 Paris-Rouen race (2nd place) but judged the official winner. Adolphe Clément is the front seat passenger.

The world’s first motorsport contest took place on the 22nd of July, 1894 from Paris to Rouen, France.

First, a selection event was held in which sixty-nine cars participated. The main 127 kilometre race had twenty-five contestants.

Marquis Jules Félix Philippe Albert de Dion de Wandonne (9 March 1856 – 19 August 1946) was a pioneer of the automobile industry in France.

Count Jules-Albert de Dion circa 1903

Count Jules-Albert de Dion was the first to complete the race, but as cars were also judged on other elements – such as safety – he was not declared the winner. He completed the race in 6 hours and 48 minutes, which averaged 19 kilometres an hour.

On this day: the premiere of Thaïs

1895 poster for Jules Massenet's opera Thaïs. This dates it to the original run.

1895 poster advertising the opera’s original run. X

Thaïs, a opera by Jules Massenet, had its premiere at the Opéra Garnier in Paris on the 16th of March, 1894.

ELSON(1891) p279 Sybil SANDERSON

Sibyl Sanderson in 1891

Massenet wrote the title role for American soprano Sibyl Sanderson, who performed in the premiere.

Jules_Massenet_by_Eugène_PirouJules Massenet, photographed by Eugène Pirou 1895

Jules Massenet in 1895

A famously difficult opera to perform, a revised version was presented at the same theatre four years after the first performance, though the production remains reserved for only the most talented singers.

 

On this day: a wedding in 1894

On the 28th of November, 1894, Miss Evelyn Mary Griffith married Mr Thomas Herbert Brown at St John’s Pro Cathedral.

The bride is on the left and is being escorted by her father, Sir Samuel Walker Griffith, who was the Chief Justice of Queensland, Australia.

Sir Samuel Walker Griffith escorting his daughter Evelyn to church on her wedding day, 1894 at St John's Pro Cathedral on 28 November 1894. He was the Chief Justice of Queensland.

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On this day: the Cripple Creek miners’ strike began in 1894

Cc_martiallawCripple Creek miners' strike of 1894

Cripple Creek under martial law, 1894.

On the 7th of February, 1894, tensions between the Western Federation of Miners and their employers boiled over into what would be a strike lasting five months.

In Cripple Creek, Colorado, the eight hour working day had been extended to a ten hour day without any raise in pay for the miners.

Cc_militaryprisonersIllegal sheriff's deputies under military guard in Cripple Creek, Colo., 1894

Illegal sheriff’s deputies under military guard, 1894.

The strike was characterised by firefights and dynamite, and the state militia became involved in the situation.

Eventually the strike was a major victory for the miners’ union.