‘We hold a vaster Empire than has been’.
With two weeks to go until Christmas, here is a Victorian Christmas card from Nova Scotia in Canada.
King Edward VII came to power in January of 1901, upon the death of his mother, Queen Victoria. The King’s son and heir and his wife, the Duke of York and the Duchess of Cornwall, subsequently went on a world tour of British territories.
They are photographed here in Ottawa, Canada’s capital city, attending a lacrosse tournament on the 21st September.
That day the Duke also presented medals:
Ukrainians in Castle Mountain concentration camp in 1915.
The 22nd of August, 1914 saw the passing of Canada’s War Measures Act. The act would result in government-sanctioned human rights abuses against Canadians of largely Ukrainian origin.
Ukrainians were declared “enemy aliens” and thousands were put into concentration camps to be used for slave labour across Canada. They were seen as enemies because the western regions of their homeland were under Austro-Hungarian rule at the outbreak of the First World War.
Some 80 000 Ukrainians who weren’t imprisoned were still required to register as enemy aliens and barred from leaving the country.
Plaque and statue at Castle Mountain near Banff.
The infamous Castle Mountain Internment Camp in Alberta saw prisoners used to work in the national parks, where they established the groundwork for the massive tourism to Banff and Lake Louise seen today.
Abuses at the camp were widespread, and were reported as far away as Britain.
Internment continued for two years after the war ended.
Ukrainian cemetery at the Kapuskasing Internment Camp in Ontario.
The internment of ethnic groups was widespread across many countries in both the First and Second World Wars, including in Australia and the United States, though the internment of Japanese Americans in the 1940s is generally the only instance most know of.
Mayor James Sharpe, his wife Edie, and Chief Earl Hill pose in front of the plaque in Centennial Park on the hundredth anniversary of the founding of Deseronto, Ontario, Canada. 19th June 1971. The Sharpes wear 1870s clothing for the occasion.
Canada honoured the Queen’s official birthday on the 21st of May this year. The British monarchs have celebrated an official birthday separate to their real birthday since the 1740s.
In 1859 this holiday occurred on the 24th of May, which was in fact Queen Victoria’s real birthday. To mark the occasion officials in Toronto handed out tickets for free loaves of bread.